1906 Historical Encyclopedia Of Illinois & History of Morgan County IL

Munsell Publishing Company, Publishers, 1906.

CADWELL, George, M. D., located in Morgan County, at Swinnerton's Point, near the present site of Lynnville, in 1820. He was the first physician in the county. In a terrible cyclone in April, 1825, his house, the only one in the vicinity covered with shingles, lost one-half of its roof. He was a member of the "Morganian Anti-slavery Society," and took an active part in preventing Illinois from becoming a slave State. The first Circuit Court of Morgan County was held by Judge John Reynolds in a log cabin owned by him in April, 1825. He was a Senator from Madison County in the First General Assembly of Illinois in 1818-820, in the Second General Assembly from Madison County in 1820-1822, and in the Third General Assembly from Greene and Pike Counties, in 1822-1824. (See Hist. Enc. of Ill., page 72.)

Dr. George Cadwell was one of an illustrious trio of early western pioneers, two of whom - Messinger and Cadwell - had such a prominent part in the legislative history of Illinois, that the following account of them given in the "Pioneer History of Illinois," by Governor John Reynolds, is worthy of reproduction here as furnishing a fuller record of the Morgan County member of this group:

"In the year 1799, sailed down the Ohio River Matthew Lyon and family, with John Messinger and Dr. George Cadwell, and their respective families. The last two named were the sons-in-law of Lyon, and all settled in Kentucky, at Eddyville. Matthew Lyon had obtained a considerable celebrity as a member of Congress, from the State of Vermont. He was a native of Ireland, had been in the Revolution, and was a warm advocate of Thomas Jefferson and Republicanism, against John Adams and Federalism. He possessed some talents, and much ardor and enthusiasm. While he was in Congress he had a difficulty with a member of the Federal party, and split in his face. He was up before Congress for contempt; but speeches were the only result. He was extremely bitter against the administration of Adams, and was fined and imprisoned under the alien and sedition laws. While he was in prison, in the State of Vermont, his friends elected him to Congress, and took him out of confinement to serve them in the Congress of the United States.

"He represented his district in Congress from Kentucky for several terms; and was always during a long and important life, an excessively warm and enthusiastic partisan in politics. He was at last appointed an Indian Agent for the Southern Indians, and died there at an advanced age. Long after his death Congress paid back to his heirs the fine he paid with interest. It was considered by Congress that the fine was paid under a "void law," and that it was due to principle, as well as to his descendants to refund the amount paid and interest. I voted, in Congress, to refund the fine and interest to his heirs.

"Matthew Lyon was a droll composition, his leading trait of character was his zeal and enthusiasm, almost to madness itself, in any cause he espoused. He never seemed to act cool and deliberate, but always in a tumult and bustle, as if he were in a house on fire, and was hurrying to get out. His Irish impulses were honest, and always on the side of human freedom This covers his excessive zeal.

"Messinger and Dr. Cadwell left Eddyville in the year 1802, and landed from a boat in the American Bottom, not far above old Fort Chartres. They remained in the Bottom for some time, and Dr. Cadwell moved and settled on the Illinois bank of the Mississippi opposite the Gaborit Island, and above St. Louis. He was quite a respectable citizen, practiced his profession, and served the people in various offices. He was Justice of the Peace, and County Court Judge for many years in both St. Clair, and in Madison, also, after its formation.

"Since the establishment of the State Government he served in the General Assembly from both Madison and Greene Counties, at different times, and always acquitted himself to the satisfaction of the public. After a long life spent in usefulness, he died in Morgan County, quite an old man. He was moral and correct in his public and private life, and left a character much more to be admired than condemned - was a respectable physician and always sustained an unblemished character.

John Messinger was born in West Stockbridge, Mass., in the year 1771; and was raised a farmer. He was, in his youth, educated both to work and in the ordinary learning derived from books at school. This system of farmers teaching their children the science and practice of agriculture, as well as science from books, deserves particular consideration, and this mixture of education seems to me to be the best that a young American can receive. Messinger, when he had advanced some years in age in his agricultural pursuits, commenced the study of mathematics with William Cott, who resided in the neighborhood of his father. In 1783 he left Massachusetts and settled in Vermont, and learned not only the art of farming, but also, in his early life became acquainted with the business of a carpenter of house builder, and the trade also of a mill-wright. He possessed a strong and vigorous intellect; and his mind, by either nature or education, or by both, became quite solid and mathematical. He possessed also a great share of energy and activity; so that it was not a difficult task for him to acquire these different mechanical trades, as well as to become deeply versed in mathematical science. In maturer age his whole delight and pleasure was found in the science of mathematics, and the various practical branches arising out of that science. His whole life seemed to be tinctured with mathematics; and, I believe, for many years he was the most profound mathematician and best land surveyor in Illinois.

"John Messinger, by the force of his genius and energies, became an excellent English scholar, and was always pleased to have an opportunity to instruct any of his neighbors or friends that would call on him for that object. He taught the science of surveying to a great many young men, and has also taught many grown people, males and females, the common rudiments of education even after they were married. He reached Illinois in 1802, when there was scarcely a school in the county, and it was honorable to both him and his students, for one to give, and the other to receive, an education, if it were after the parties were married.

"Messinger was not large in person, but compactly built - hardy, and very energetic. With the talents he possessed, his activity, he was extremely useful, not only in teaching the art of surveying to others, but in the practical operations of surveying himself. He was the first person, or amongst the first surveyors that, in the year 1806, surveyed the United States lands in townships, in this section of the State. He surveyed much of the public domain in St. Clair and Randolph Counties.

"He was not only an excellent mathematician, but he wrote and published a book entitled "A manual, or Hand-Book, intended for convenience in Practical Surveying." This work was printed by William Orr, Esq., in St. Louis in the year 1821, and contains the whole science or practical surveying, together with the necessary tables to enable the practitioner to calculate the are of land, without any difficulty whatever. This book has shown deep research by the author, and establishes the fact that he was a profound mathematician. He was Professor of Mathematics in the seminary at Rock Springs, St. Clair County, for some time, and performed the duties of this responsible station to the entire satisfaction of the public.

"In 1815, he was appointed Deputy Surveyor under the Surveyor-General, Edward Tiffin, of the State of Ohio, and was authorized to survey the military tract in the forks of the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers. He surveyed much of this tract, which was approved by the Surveyor-General. He was appointed with a gentleman of Hillsborough, Ill., to survey, on the part of the State of Illinois, the northern limits of the State, in latitude forty-two and one-half degrees north. The Hon. Lucius Lyon, of Michigan, was the Commissioner on the part of the United States, to assist in the survey. Messinger was an efficient and scientific astronomer and mathematician in calculating the latitude, and surveying this line dividing the State of Illinois from Wisconsin. He and Philip Creamer, a celebrated artisan, made surveyors' compasses that were as well calculated, and as well finished in workmanship, as any made in the United States.

"Messinger was never ambitious of public office; yet the public called on him, and he served them, both in the General Assemblies of the Indiana Territory, and the State of Illinois. He was elected in 1818, from the county of St. Clair, to the Legislature of Indiana Territory, and did much towards obtaining a division of the Territory, which took place the next year. He was elected from St. Clair County, a member of the Convention that met at Kaskaskia, and formed the State Constitution, in 1818. He made a cautious and prudent member; always wise, without rashness. In the first General Assembly of the State of Illinois, at its organization, in 1818, he was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives. He was a member elect from St. Clair County; and made an upright and impartial Speaker. This was an important Legislature, and much business was done during the session.

"He gave his children a common, good education, and taught almost all of them the art of surveying. He never acquired any great amount of wealth, although he had great opportunities to acquire property. He had no talent for speculation - was rigidly and scrupulously honest, and possessed an ambition to appear plain and unassuming. He seemed to be proud of his want of pride. His morals, and orderly bearing were above reproach, and such as even a clergyman might be proud of. His mind was strong and mathematical, and all its various movements seemed to be in search of some abstruse truth in that science, that delighted him so much. He died on his plantation in the year 1846, aged seventy-five years. At his death he had no enemies, but ruly all friends, that mourned his decease. He had not the time or disposition to attend to his farm. He seemed resigned to leave this 'vale of tears," with the hopes of being with his god, to enjoy a happy immortality."

CALDWELL, Leander Acres, a prosperous farmer residing in the village of Franklin, Ill., was born one and a half miles southeast of that place, on June 27, 1850, the son of John C. and Louisa (Rogers) Caldwell, both natives of Kentucky, who settled in Morgan County in 1826. At that time John C. came here with an older brother, William, and later became a farmer and tanner. His shop was located on the farm where Leander A. was born, and probably at that time he was the only tanner in the county. His leather was eagerly sought, for the manufacture of shoes, harness and other purposes. In 1827 he was married to Louisa Rogers, daughter of a Baptist minister, who preached the first sermon under the auspices of that denomination in the county. He built himself a long double log cabin, using wooden pins instead of nails, and for thirty years was both farmer and preacher.

The parents of Mr. Caldwell had nine children, Leander A. being the youngest, and all of them becoming prominent in the history of the country. John C. Caldwell died December 24, 1874, and his wife, Louisa Caldwell, August 17, 1900, aged ninety-two years. Leander A. was reared to an agricultural life, was educated in the Franklin schools, and for a time attended the Wesleyan College at Bloomington, Ill. Later he engaged in the cattle business - his capital being energy, ability and a team of horses - and now owns a fine farm of 320 acres, a portion of which was part of his father's homestead. He soon abandoned the cattle business for general farming, but finally, in March, 1898, removed to Franklin, where he lives in comparative retirement, the farm being still conducted under his supervision and management. He has been a member of the Village Board for four years, and, on April 18, 1905, was elected Mayor. He is a member of the I.O.O.F., and in politics, a Democrat.

On March 3, 1898, Leander A. Caldwell was married to Mrs. Emma E. Strawn, daughter of John Carrington, of Jacksonville. By a former marriage Mr. Caldwell has two daughters, both well-educated and accomplished ladies, and graduates in music. Their names are: Lillian, wife of J. W. Paton, of East St. Louis, Ill., and Darzy May, wife of B. L. Virgin, of the same city. The children of Mrs. Caldwell by her first marriage are Amy E. and Enola Strawn, attending the High School in Franklin.

CAMPBELL, James H., a worthy, highly respected and substantial farmer, who pursues his calling eight miles west of Jacksonville, Morgan County, Ill., was born February 15, 1837, three miles southwest of Lynnville, Ill. At that period, the farm on which his birth took place was in Morgan County, but is now in Scott County. On this place, his father, Samuel F. Campbell, located in 1834 - his birth occurring in Lincoln County, Ky., February 29, 1808. James Campbell, the grandfather, was a farmer by occupation. He migrated to Tennessee when Samuel F. was an infant, and lived in that State until about the year 1832, when he moved to Morgan County, Ill., and entered a tract of Government land. He married Margaret Moore, a native of Kentucky, and their children were as follows: John B., Joseph, Givens, Samuel, William L., and Green B., all of whom are deceased; Orpha, Sally, Hannah, widow of Wilson W. Hawk, of Winchester, Ill. (but now deceased); and Eliza J., widow of William Rice, of San Jose, Cal. Grandfather Campbell followed farming all his life. He and his wife were members of the first Christian Church in Lynnville, Ill., which was organized in 1838, and he was one of the principal men connected with the erection of the edifice. The original building now stands on the public square and is called Irving Hall. His wife, in particular, was very active in church work. James Campbell died when sixty-seven years old, and his widow passed away at the age of eighty-eight years.

Samuel F. Campbell received his mental training in the subscription schools. When but a boy, he was apprenticed to learn the tailor's trade. On account of dissatisfaction on the part of his employer, he worked overtime to redeem his unexpired limit, and, when free, engaged in business for himself in Maury County, Tenn. In the fall of 1833, he married Nancy T. Moore, a native of that State. They lived in Tennessee until 1834, when they located in Morgan County, Ill., and bought a tract of land lying southwest of Lynnville, which was mostly timber. This Mr. Campbell cleared up and lived there until 1852. In that year the family moved to what is now Cass County, where they spent one year. Mr. Campbell bought 360 acres of land in Sections 30 and 31, Township 15, Range 11, on the State Road, eight miles west of Jacksonville, Ill., which was partly improved. On this place the family lived until the father's death. Samuel F. Campbell and his wife were the parents of ten children, namely: William M., of Kansas; James H., of Morgan County; Clinton S., and John B., of Hancock County, Ill., Lewis, who also lives in Kansas; Elizabeth A., wife of H. Dickinson, of Oregon; Sarah J., wife of John Mitchell, who lives in Sangamon County, Ill., and Eliza E., wife of Archie B. McKinney, of Morgan County, a sketch of whose life appears elsewhere in this volume. The father of this family died when he was seventy-four years old, and the mother passed away at the age of eighty-six years. After coming to Illinois the former abandoned the tailor's trade and devoted his attention to farming. He was a member of the Christian Church of Lynnville.

During his boyhood James H. Campbell received his mental training in the district schools and remained on the home farm until his marriage. He and his brother had bought a part of the homestead, on which he now resides. Later, Mr. Campbell purchased his brother's interest, and has made all the modern improvements on the place. He now owns 193 acres of land, nearly all of which is under cultivation. He carries on general farming and stock-raising breeding Poland-China hogs, Shorthorn cattle, and Cotswold sheep. He also raises Light Brahma chickens.

On October 14, 1860, Mr. Campbell was untied in marriage with Emeline A. Funk, a native of Scott County, Ill., and they commenced housekeeping in that county, where they lived until her death, a year after her marriage. Mr. Campbell then returned to the old home, where he remained until 1860. In that year he married Sarah Ellen Rice, a native of Morgan County, and a daughter of Elder E. G. and Mary A. Rice, prominent people in that section, and members of the Christian Church, of which Mr. Campbell was a leading member. The following children resulted from this union, namely: Alice Cary, who lives with her parents; Mary E., widow of Arthur A. Wilson; Albert J., and Charles S., both of Howell County, Mo.; and Edith and Nancy, who are on the home farm.

In politics Mr. Campbell is a Democrat, and religiously is a member of the Christian Church, which he joined in 1861, and in which he is an Elder, taking a deep and active interest in church work. He is a man of strict probity, of pure and blameless life, and is everywhere regarded as a model farmer and an exemplary citizen.

CANNON, William Simpson, the efficient manager of the W. S. Cannon Commission Company, of Jacksonville, Morgan County, Ill., agents for Swift & Co., of Chicago, was born on a farm near Marietta, Fulton County, Ill., August 31, 1866. He is a son of John and Margaret Nahaley (Nichols) Cannon. Both of his grandfathers were Methodist ministers. John Cannon, the father, was born in England about the year 1832, and his mother, in the State of New York, about the year 1834. The former was brought to the Unites States at the age of four years, the family settling at Niagara Falls, where John Cannon remained until he was married. About the year 1865 he located in Jacksonville, where he was engaged in the butchering and meat business until 1890. When he removed to Gainesville, Ga., where he conducted a fruit farm until his death in 1904. He was always a consistent member of the Methodist Church, being a Sunday-school Superintendent for a number of years before his death. His wife died in 1884.

In boyhood William S. Cannon received his mental training in the district schools, and then learned the butcher's trade with his father in Jacksonville. He remained with his father until he was eighteen years of age, when he went to work for John Leck. As an infant of eight months his parents had brought him from his birthplace in Fulton County, Ill., to Niagara Falls, N. Y., and after living there four years had spent three years on a farm in Kansas, arriving in Jacksonville about the year 1874, when he was eight years old; and there he has lived ever since. He remained in the employment of John Leck for eighteen months, and then spent three months in Minnesota. Returning to Jacksonville, he worked for J. J. Schafer for three years, leaving him to go into the meat business for himself. Two years afterward he sold his meat market, and in 1894 became the local manager for Swift & Co., continuing in that capacity for six years. He then resigned the position to organize the Jacksonville Meat Company, of which he was manager for eight months. At the end of that period the company took charge of the Swift & Co. business on a commission basis, and conducts it under the name of the W. S. Cannon Commission Company. In addition to meat and the side products, the company is doing an extensive business in produce, poultry, butter and eggs. Under Mr. Cannon's able and skillful management, the concern is enjoying a period of great prosperity, and substantial gains have been made in all departments. The proprietor is acknowledged to be one of the most energetic, progressive and successful business men in Jacksonville.

On November 21, 1888, Mr. Cannon was united in marriage with Elizabeth Mellen, of Jacksonville, a daughter of John and Ellen Mellen. Eight children have resulted from this union, namely: Elmer; William, who died at the age of eight months; John; Fran; William; Clifford; Irene and Tom.

CARRIEL, HENRY BUTTOLPH, M. D. , Superintendent of the Illinois Central Hospital for the Insane, Jacksonville, was born in Trenton, N. J., June 21, 1863, and is a son of Henry Frost and Mary Catherine (Buttolph) Carriel. (A detailed sketch of his father's life will be found elsewhere in this work.) In 1870 he was brought to Jacksonville by his parents and attended the public schools of that city and Illinois College, from which he was graduated with the class of 1885. Upon the completion of his classical course he entered the Chicago Medical College (now the medical department of Northwestern University), from which he was graduated in 1888, with the degree of Doctor of Medicine. After serving as his father's assistant in the insane hospital for a few months, he acted for one year as interne in Mercy Hospital, Chicago. The following year was devoted to study in the principal insane hospitals of Europe, his research in this direction taking him to Berlin, Vienna, Paris, London, Dublin and other cities. Upon his return to America he engaged in private practice in Chicago, where he was located for about seven years. On April 19, 1897, he became First Assistant Physician to the Central Hospital at Jacksonville, then under the superintendency of Dr. Winslow, remaining in that capacity until December 1, 1901, when he was appointed Acting Superintendent of the hospital at Bartonville, Ill. On July 1, 1902, he was appointed Superintendent of the institution at Jacksonville, and has since continuously occupied that post.

On December 1, 1891, Dr. Carriel was united in marriage with Ada Margaret Smith, daughter of J. B. Smith, and a niece of Judge Abner Smith, of Chicago. They are the parents of one daughter, Isabel.

Though a comparatively young man, Dr. Carriel has established a high reputation in his special department of medical science. The years which he has devoted to research and private practice in one of the great cities of the world-a city prolific in material which appeals to a progressive and studious specialist-have rendered him peculiarly well qualified for the great undertaking which lies before

CARRIEL, HENRY FROST, M. D. , for twenty-three years Superintendent of the Illinois Central Hospital for the Insane, Jacksonville, now living in retirement in that city, was born at Charlestown, N. H., August 20, 1830, the son of Hiram and Permelia (Frost) Carriel. His father died in 1839, leaving a wife and four young children, of whom Henry F. was the eldest. Four years later the home was broken up by the death of his mother, and Henry F. found a home with an uncle and aunt (the latter a sister of his father), who were most kind and generous in their treatment of him. He attended school in a little red school house near his home, and during his youth and early manhood taught school during the winter months, the summer seasons being devoted to work upon a farm. While finishing his classical studies at the Wesleyan Seminary at Springfield, Vt., he determined upon a career in medicine. Dr. Knight, with whom he lived, suggested that he go to Woodstock, Vt., and attend medical lectures, which advice he followed. He afterward studied with Dr. Knight at Springfield, Vt., and subsequently attended a medical school at Pittsfield, Mass. While there he met Mr. Blakesley, an old school friend, who prevailed upon him to take his place as apothecary at the insane asylum located at Hartford, Conn. After occupying this position four months he returned to Pittsfield to continue his medical studies. Later he returned to Hartford to resume his former position as apothecary, and in the fall accepted the position of Assistant Physician in the Hartford Retreat, then under the management of Dr. John S. Butler. Early in the following summer he became connected with the asylum for the Insane at Flushing, N. Y., where he was Assistant Physician for three months. After these valuable experiences in study and practice, he entered the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City, where he completed his course and in 1857 obtained the degree of Doctor of Medicine. In February before his graduation he received the tender of a position as Physician at the Bloomingdale Asylum, but declined the offer. A short time afterward Dr. Horace A. Buttolph, Superintendent of the New Jersey State Asylum, at Trenton, requested him to become Assistant Physician at that institution, a post which he accepted in March, 1857. There he remained until July, 1870, when he removed to Jacksonville to become Superintendent of the Illinois Central Hospital for the Insane, a post for which he was highly recommended by Dr. Buttolph, and which he filled with marked ability until 1893.

When Dr. Carriel came to the Illinois institution-which was founded in 1847, and at that time was the only hospital for the insane in the State-he found the 450 inmates surrounded by conditions which were far from being of the best. Perhaps the greatest hindrance to the improvement of the general health of the patients was the lack of a proper system of ventilation. There were many other features susceptible of great improvement, and these conditions Dr. Carriel immediately set out to improve. In 1871 he erected the boiler house and laundry, at an expense of $20,000. In 1873 he built the carpenter shop. By 1877 he found it necessary to increase the capacity of the institution still further; and, with the consent of the State Legislature, erected the wings to the main building, thereby providing accommodations for 150 additional patients, equally divided as to sex. In 1878 he erected the domestic building, at an expense of $8,000. In 1879 a floral conservatory was built, and a room which had been used as an ironing room was converted into an amusement hall, a feature entirely lacking up to that time. In 1881 the conveniences were still further enhanced by the construction of the refrigeration building. The greatest development, so far as accommodations for the rapidly increasing list of patients were concerned, was the erection of two capacious annexes to the main structure of the institution. The State Legislature having made an appropriation of $135,000 for the purpose, in 1884 Dr. Carriel began the erection of the North Annex, which accommodates 300 patients. With an eye single to the benefit of the institution and the welfare of the State, he succeeded in building this annex for $20,000 less than the amount appropriated for the purpose; and this balance, which was reappropriated for the purpose, he employed in the improvement of the water supply. The South Annex, which also accommodates 300 patients, and the amusement hall, erected in 1889, with all the furnishings, including the pipe organ, were paid for out of the appropriation of $120,000, intended for the construction of the annex alone, leaving a balance of about $2,500, which was returned to the State Treasury. In the interim (1889) Dr. Carriel built the barn and stables. The only important work of construction done since his retirement has been the erection of the infirmary in 1901, an undertaking which he recommended in his last annual report. Dr. Carriel's resignation from the important post which he had filled with distinguished ability for a period of twenty-three years, was prompted by his anticipation of the injection of the "spoils system" into the management of those State institutions which ought to be, and usually are, outside the pale of politics.

In 1863 Dr. Carriel was united in marriage with Mary Catherine, daughter of Dr. Horace A. Buttolph, who died in 1873. They were the parents of the following children: Dr. H. B. Carriel, present Superintendent of the Illinois Central Hospital for the Insane; Horace A. with the Edison Electric Company at Los Angeles, Cal.; and Frank B., a merchant at St. Joseph, Mo. In 1875 Dr. Carriel married Mary L. Turner, daughter of Prof. Jonathan B. Turner, a sketch of whose life will be found elsewhere in this work. The children of this marriage are: Howard T., a physician located at Redstone, Colo.; Fred Clifford, a civil engineer residing in Chicago; Charles Arthur, a student in Illinois College; and Ella K., the wife of William Doss Roberts.

In reviewing the life work of Dr. Carriel, it is not easy to comprehend how so much labor and such weighty responsibilities could be borne by one man. The work of a lifetime appears to have been crowded into less than a quarter of a century. It was not long after his assumption of the duties of Superintendent of the hospital at Jacksonville that he realized that he had a gigantic task before him. But he loved his work, and that made his progress less difficult. To mental endowments of the highest order, heightened and broadened by liberal culture, he added such persistence of application and well-ordered method of procedure as to elevate, purely through association with him, the moral and intellectual status of those susceptible personalities who came within the radius of his influence. As an alienist Dr. Carriel won an international reputation, the institution in his charge for nearly a quarter of a century being recognized as a model.

CARTER, William Chauncy, (deceased), pioneer farmer of Morgan County, was born in New Canaan, Conn., April 2, 1820, and died in Jacksonville, Ill., December 9, 1896. He was a son of Ebenezer and Eliza (Weed) Carter. His father, also a native of New Canaan, was descended from an English immigrant, Samuel Carter, whose father was of the same name. The founder of the family in America was born in London, England, about 1665. Having been enticed from home by the captain of a vessel coming to this country, he came to America about 1677, and landed in Boston. In 1668 he settled in Deerfield, Mass., and afterward resided in Norwalk, Conn. His son, Samuel, lost his entire family of eight persons at the sacking and burning of Deerfield by the French and Indians from Canada, February 29, 1703 or 1704. Some of the members of the family were massacred and others were taken captive and carried to Canada. Ebenezer Carter was the only child who returned to the colony. He was one of the pioneers from Norwalk to Canaan Parish, now New Canaan, Conn. Various representatives of the family have become conspicuous in public affairs and in professional life, in several States of the Union.

At the age of thirteen years William Chauncy Carter was brought by his parents to Illinois, and with them spent the winter of 1833-34 at Winchester. The following spring they located on a farm about four miles south of Jacksonville, where Ebenezer Carter had purchased a claim of 80 acres of prairie land, and entered some timber land. The elder man spent the rest of his life on this place and died there in May, 1860. After his death his widow removed to Jacksonville, where she died. They reared a family of one son and two daughters - William Chauncy; Mary Elizabeth, who married Dr. James Woodward (now deceased), and who is living in Olathe, Kans., and Hannah Benedict, who married James C. Fairbank. Both Mr. and Mrs. Fairbank are deceased.

Mr. Carter enjoyed exceptional educational advantages for his day. After completing his preparatory course he entered Illinois College, from which he graduated in 1845. Renting land near his father's farm, he devoted the summer months to its cultivation, and taught school during the winter for four years, two years teaching in his own neighborhood, and two years at Franklin. He then purchased a tract of land situated below his father's farm, and an additional small body of land from his father, and devoted the remainder of his active life to agriculture. In October, 1873, he removed to Jacksonville, retiring from business. During his residence in that city he served for eight years as a member of the City Council, taking an active and unselfish interest in the advancement of various projects for the improvement of the city. He was generally regarded as the father of the present system of pavements in Jacksonville. When the Council had before it an ordinance providing for the construction of a plank pavement from the public square to the Chicago and Alton depot, he was the only member whose vote was recorded in opposition to the project. He favored the paving of all streets with brick and offered strong arguments in behalf of such improvement, even after the Council had adopted the ordinance providing for the plank road. He finally persuaded the late Marshall P. Ayers to pave the section of street in front of his bank with vitrified brick, so that the people might see a section of roadway in operation. As soon as the superior advantages of this form of pavement were seen, the Council unanimously rescinded the original act and voted to pave East State Street with brick. From that time forward the success of the brick pavement was assured, and many miles of it were constructed within a few years following the passage of the original ordinance.

Mr. Carter was an active supporter of the Union during the Civil War. He was a member of the Union League, and his barn was one of the "Underground Railway stations: which marked the progress of the escaping slaves in their path to freedom. Both father and son were deeply interested in the welfare of the school system, and after the organization of the public school system of the State, W. C. Carter served for a long period as School Director. In religion he was a devoted member of the Congregational Church. Though a man of strong convictions, he was modest and retiring in his disposition, and prone to give to others the credit for advancing public enterprises which really should have been given to him. He never vacillated between right and wrong, but firmly adhered to those principles of honesty and justice which constituted the guide of his forefathers.

On November 19, 1846, Mr. Carter was united in marriage with Julia Ann Wolcott, daughter of Elihu Wolcott, one of the representative citizens of Jacksonville during its early days. Mr. Wolcott was born in Windsor, Conn., and came to Morgan County with his family in 1830, arriving in the county on November 5th of that year. He surveyed the route of the old Sangamon & Morgan Railroad, and was identified with various other enterprises of importance in Morgan County. Mrs. Carter was born in Windsor, Conn., June 20, 1826, and was graduated from the Jacksonville Female Academy in the class of 1845, her sole classmate being Miss Kate Murdock. She bore her husband the following named children: Samuel Wolcott, a farmer residing on Joy Prairie; William Chauncy and Edwin, who died in infancy; William Wallace, who resides on the homestead; Ella Marion, who died at the age of twenty-eight; Walter Lee, residing on the homestead; Prof. Truman P. Carter of Jacksonville; and Helen Hooker and Herbert, twins. Of the latter Helen H. died in infancy. Herbert was graduated from Illinois College in 1892, and from Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia in the class of 1895; engaged in the drug business in Jacksonville for two or three years; returned to Philadelphia to take a special course on diseases of the nose and throat, and died there in 1899. Mr. Carter and his wife gave to all their children excellent educational advantages, and they have honored the family name by their upright and useful lives.

CARTER, John. - The life and work of John Carter are a part of the yesterday of Jacksonville and Morgan County, yet so faithfully did he perform his share towards subduing the wilderness, and so substantially was he later connected with the business life of the town, that he is assured of permanent remembrance, notwithstanding the fact that seventeen years have elapsed since his death, March 5, 1889. Mr. Carter was the representative of an English family established near Cartersville, Cumberland County, Va., October 17, 1821. His father, John Carter, Sr., is supposed to have been born in the South, and in 1825 came overland to Morgan County, where he settled on land of primeval wilderness, and devoted the balance of his life to farming and stock_raising. He was a man of ability and resource, and represented the law for several terms as Justice of the Peace.

John Carter, Jr., was four years old when he came to Morgan County. As soon as his strength permitted he performed small tasks around the home farm, gradually making his labor of practical use, and devoting his leisure to roaming over the timber lands in search of game which then abounded in large numbers. Eventually he engaged in trading of various kinds, and at the outbreak of the Mexican War volunteered under John J. Hardin, whom he accompanied to Mexico, and there participated in several notable engagements. In 1847 he married, near Lynnville, Morgan County, Nancy Todd, who died a few years later without issue. In 1860 he married Mary H. Carter, eldest daughter of Col. William Gordon, a prominent character in the early days of Morgan County, and a valorous soldier in the Black Hawk War. Mr. Gordon was a man of liberal education, and after coming to Illinois represented Morgan County one term (1834_1836) in the State Legislature. He was the friend of education, and voted for the charter of Illinois College.

In 1870 Mr. Carter abandoned farming and moved to Jacksonville, where he purchased an interest in a drug store, and conducted the same in partnership with his brother_in_law, B. F. Beesley, for three years. He then became sole owner of the drug store, to the management of which he devoted the balance of his life. Thereafter the store was managed by his wife for seven years, when it passed out of the possession of the family. This was the first drug store in Illinois, having been established by David B. Ayers, one of the first settlers in Morgan County. Three children and his wife survive Mr. Carter. Of these, Grace lives with her mother in Jacksonville; Stella is the wife of A. S. Mitchell, of New York City; and John Gordon is an attorney of Chicago.

Many public undertakings in the early days of the county claimed the attention and support of Mr. Carter. He was public spirited in the extreme, and a generous contributor to worthy causes, among them the Christian Church at Lynnville, of which he was an Elder for many years. Politically, he was first a Whig, but after studying the slavery question from all sides, joined the Republican party. In all his dealings with his fellow_men he was the soul of honor, and as farmer and druggist invested his work with dignity and thoroughness. His memory was a storehouse of events connected with the early settlement of the county _ events which soon will exist only in the pages of history, and in the memories of the descendants of the pathfinders.

CARTER, SCOTT P., a well known and successful contractor of Jacksonville, Morgan County, Ill., was born at Exeter, Ill., July 4, 1860, the son of Cyrus C. and Julia A. (Otis) Carter, natives of Canada - the former born in Montreal, August 12, 1823, and the latter, in Compton, May 10, 1832. In 1844 Cyrus C. Carter settled at Exeter, Ill., and still resides on a farm in the vicinity of that place. By occupation he has been a maker of the early style of carriages and wagons, in which he became quite prominent. He has patented seven different devices, and is the inventor of the runner wheat drill. In politics, he is a strong Republican, and was an ardent supporter of Lincoln and the elder Yates. On account of defective sight, he was disqualified as a soldier, but at home supported the Union cause to the best of his ability. He was married April 10, 1855, to Julia A. Otis, whose ancestors came to this country on the "Mayflower". She is also still living. They are the parents of the following named children: Charles C., born June 17, 1857; Scott P., born July 4, 1860; Curtis C., born August 26, 1867; and Jesse B., born September 10, 1869.

Mr. Carter attended the public schools in his youth, and at the age of twenty-one years went to Idaho, Montana and Minnesota, in the employ of the Northern Pacific Railway Company, with which he remained for two years. At the end of that period he worked as a carpenter in Kansas City, St. Paul, Chicago and other places, and was afterward employed in the building department of the Wabash Railroad. In the fall of 1890, he located in Jacksonville and entered into business as a building contractor, in which line he has become widely and favorably known.

On January 3, 1893, Mr. Carter, was joined in wedlock with Minnie A. Van Winkle, a daughter of Atherton and Tabitha Ellen (Luttrell) Van Winkle. She is a graduate of Brown's Business College, Jacksonville, and was for many years a stenographer for the old Jacksonville Southeastern Railroad Company. Subsequently she was employed in the same capacity by the Mercantile Law Company of St. Louis. In 1824, before his marriage, John R. Luttrell, her grandfather, journeyed to Morgan County, from Todd County, Ky. Mrs. Carter's parents were born in Morgan County, where her father carried on farming all his life. He served during the Civil War in Company A, thirty-second Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and died March 2, 1871, on his farm near Franklin, Morgan County. Three children resulted from the union of Mr. and Mrs. Carter, namely: Curtis Atherton, born November 25, 1893; Lillian Hazel, born November 19, 1895; and Lloyd Aubrey, born March 29, 1898.

In politics, Mr. Carter is a supporter of the Republican party. Fraternally, he is affiliated with Jacksonville Lodge, No. 4, I.O.O.F., which he joined in 1893, having first become a member of the order in 1882. He is also identified with the Athens Court, No. 30, Court of Honor, and Lincoln Council, No. 455, Mutual Protective League. He is a very energetic and progressive man, and his business operations have been attended by well merited success.

CATLIN, (CAPT.) CHARLES AUGUSTUS , of Jacksonville, Ill., District Agent for the Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company of Milwaukee, Wis., was born in Hancock County, Ill., March 23, 1839, the youngest child of Joel and Calista (Hawley) Catlin. His father, a native of Connecticut, learned the trade of a silversmith in early life, and soon after his marriage removed to Augusta, Ga., where he remained in business until four children had been born into the family. Being a strong anti-slavery man, he decided to leave that State and removed to a section where he would be enabled to rear his children amid surroundings of a different political nature. Coming overland to Illinois in the fall of 1832, he established himself in business as a silversmith and watchmaker in Jacksonville. In 1836 he removed to Hancock County, Ill., and in company with William Abernathy, a relative, he laid out and founded the town of Augusta, which they named for the Georgia city. In that county he also engaged in farming. He became intimately acquainted with Joseph Smith, the head of the Mormon Church, who gave him a copy of the Book of Mormon, which remains an heirloom in possession of the Catlin family. Mr. Catlin was a strong anti-Mormon, and became one of the leaders in the movement which finally resulted in the removal of that sect from Nauvoo to Salt Lake, Utah. Such an active part did he take in the campaign against the Mormons that the leaders of the church at one time are said to have placed a price upon his head. During his residence in Hancock County his home was one of the stations of the "Underground Railroad," and through his instrumentality many slaves were assisted to freedom.

In 1852 Mr. Catlin returned to Jacksonville to become agent for the Sangamon & Morgan Railway Company, afterward the Great Western, and now a part of the Wabash system. During the quarter of a century of his residence in Jacksonville, he was intimately associated with such men as the Rev. William Kirby, Elihu Wolcott, Dr. J. M. Sturtevant, Prof. Jonathan B. Turner and others, in their well-directed efforts to ameliorate the condition of the slaves. He was deeply interested in religious work. He became a communicant of the Presbyterian Church before removing from Connecticut, and served as an Elder in the churches of this denomination in Augusta, Ga., Augusta, Ill., and Jacksonville, filling this office in the First Presbyterian (now the State Street Presbyterian) Church of Jacksonville at the time of his death in 1879, at the age of eighty-five years. For some time he also served as Treasurer of the Jacksonville Female Academy and of Illinois College. His wife's death occurred in 1875. They had seven children, as follows: John Hawley, William Edwin, Sarah (wife of Jeremiah Pierson), James Kent, Mary, one child who died in infancy, and C. Augustus. James Kent Catlin served as an aid-de-camp on the staff of General B. H. Grierson, and was killed February 22, 1864, at the age of thirty-one years, by a detachment of Forrest's cavalry.

Captain Catlin received his education in the Jacksonville public schools, being graduated from the High School under Dr. Newton Bateman. He learned the drug business in the store of Robert Hockenhull, and was in his employ at the outbreak of the Civil War. On September 2, 1862, he enlisted for service in the Union Army, assisting in the organization of Company C, One Hundred and First Illinois Volunteer Infantry, of which he was at once elected First Lieutenant. This regiment went to Cairo, Ill., doing provost duty; from there to Columbus, Ky., and thence to Davies' Mills, Tenn., where it became a part of the First Brigade of Ross's Division of the Army of the Tennessee, General Grant commanding. On the night of their arrival at Davies' Mills, Captain Catlin was assigned to duty as aid-de-camp on the staff of Colonel John Mason Loomis, commanding the brigade. Proceeding toward Vicksburg as far as Oxford, Miss., in the fall of 1862, they participated in the movement against that stronghold. The supplies for the army having been destroyed at Holly Springs, Miss., the army went into winter quarters and Captain Catlin was ordered to Memphis, where he was assigned to duty as Judge Advocate of a Court of Inquiry. Subsequently he was assigned as Provost Marshal on the west side of the Mississippi River, opposite Vicksburg; April 28, 1863, he was promoted to Captain, and became Assistant Provost Marshal to the Army of the Tennessee, with headquarters at Yazoo Landing. After the fall of Vicksburg, July 4, 1863, he was stationed in that city, and had charge of the work of patroling the prisoners which followed the capitulation. The prisoners paroled were classified as follows: One Lieutenant General, 4 Major Generals, 10 Brigadier Generals, 49 Colonels, 37 Lieutenant Colonels, 87 Majors, 578 Captains, 606 First Lieutenants, 513 Second Lieutenants, 244 Third Lieutenants, 3 Chaplains, 13 Aides, 1 Cadet, 231 non-commissioned staff officers, 252 First Sergeants, 1,858 Sergeants, 1,621 Corporals, 14 artificers, 16 musicians, 5 sutlers, 115 citizen employes-a total of 21,491 men.

After performing this duty he was granted leave of absence that he might keep his engagement to marry. Leaving the field, he returned to Illinois, and immediately continued his journey to Norristown, Pa., where, on August 26, 1863, he was united in marriage with Carrie Twining. Rejoining his regiment at Union City, Tenn., soon afterward, in command of four companies of his regiment and a guide, he was ordered to form a junction some thirty miles in the interior (subsisting on the country) with a force from Paducah, Ky., for the purpose of relieving that section of the State from the Confederates who had been busily conscripting men. Upon the conclusion of this task he rejoined his regiment at Louisville, Ky., and proceeded with it to Bridgeport, Ala., where he was Inspector of the First Brigade of the Third Division of the Eleventh army Corps, serving in this capacity up to the time of his resignation. While serving with this section of the army, Captain Catlin participated in one of the most important movements of the campaign-the relief of the besieged Army of the Cumberland, which after the battle of Chickamauga returned to Chattanooga and vicinity, it being cut off from communication with the north by the occupation of Lookout Valley by the enemy. The Eleventh Corps crossed the Tennessee River at Bridgeport, Ala., about twenty miles from Chattanooga, and drove the enemy out of Lookout Valley, opening up communications with the Army of the Cumberland, the river only separating. That night the Confederates made a determined attack, hoping to destroy the Quartermaster and Commissary supplies that were being taken to the besieged forces. The necessity of this movement may be better appreciated when it is known that the sole method of procuring means of subsistence up to that time had been by pack train over a mountain trail, a distance of some sixty miles. This night engagement, known in history as the battle of Wauhatchie, was a spirited one, and the success which attended it rendered it the opening wedge to the complete relief of the Army of the Cumberland from a most desperate situation. The command with which Captain Catlin was identified afterward participated in the battle of Mission Ridge, one of the fiercest contests of the entire war; in the battle of Lookout Mountain, the relief of Burnside at Knoxville, and the driving of Longstreet out of Tennessee. In the spring of 1864, following the news of the death of his brother, Captain Catlin received another leave of absence that he might return home and look after the interests of his family. Believing it to be his duty henceforth to remain at home, he tendered his resignation April 16, 1864, after an active and loyal service in the defense of the Union.

Going to Pekin, Ill., Capt. Catlin there engaged in the drug business until his return to Jacksonville, in the fall of 1869, to become agent for the Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company of Milwaukee, Wis. Since that time he has continued to represent that great corporation in Jacksonville and vicinity as District Agent, and is now, in length of service, the oldest representative of the company. In a calling where great opportunities for financial gain are afforded through the exercise of corrupt practices, Captain Catlin has builded a reputation for integrity and a high sense of personal of honor that is all too uncommon in these days. In his fraternal relations he is prominent in Masonry. He is a member of Jacksonville Lodge, No. 570, A.F.&A.M.; Jacksonville Chapter, No. 3, R.A.M.; Jacksonville Council, No. 5, R.&S.M.; Hospitaler Commandery, No. 31, K.T.; and of the Mystic Shrine and the Consistory at Peoria, Ill., having taken the thirty-second degree. He is also a charter member and now (1905) Commander of Matt Starr Post, No. 378, G.A.R. By his first marriage he became the father of four children, namely: Carrie Augusta, deceased; Donald Cameron, of New York City; Frank Hawley, residing in the South; and Harry, who died in infancy. Carrie (Twining) Catlin died June 18, 1892. On February 25, 1896, he married Mrs. Helen Baxter, of Griggsville, Ill., who died six weeks later. His third marriage, which occurred March 8, 1900, united him with Mrs. Roxanna Goltra Towne.

CHAMBERS, (Colonel) GEORGE MAXWELL, pioneer merchant and stock-dealer of Morgan County, Ill., was born in Maryland in 1800, and in childhood was taken by his parents to Kentucky, where he resided until 1837. His father, Rowland Ross Chambers, died in Kentucky. In 1828 Colonel Chambers married Eleanor E. Irwin, who was born in Fayette County, Ky., in 1808. In 1837 he moved to Illinois, locating at Jacksonville, where for about twelve years he engaged in general merchandising. During this period he purchased considerable farming land, which is now within the city limits of Jacksonville. In 1846 he erected a large brick residence on the south side of State Street, between Diamond and Westminster Streets, a structure that was considered a mansion in the early days. It is still standing, one of the landmarks of Morgan County.

Colonel Chambers held a commission as Colonel in the State Militia in the early '40s. Upon the outbreak of the Mexican War, he enlisted with the first troops sent out from Illinois, and was assigned to the Commissary Department. In politics he was originally a Whig; but when, in 1856, the majority of the adherents of that party cast their fortunes with the new Republican organization, he became a Democrat, and was loyal to that party during the remainder of his life. His death occurred in August, 1891, and his wife preceded him in 1888.

Colonel Chambers and his wife became the parents of the following children: Catherine L., deceased, wife of Dr. G. R. Henry, of Burlington, Iowa; Rowland Ross, of Jacksonville; Nancy M., deceased, wife of George W. Moore, of Morgan County; John Irwin, of Jacksonville; Anna E., wife of J. N. Taylor, of Omaha, Neb.; George M., deceased; Leonard W., of Jacksonville; and Mrs. Ella Bradish, of Springfield, Ill. Colonel Chambers was recognized as one of the strong and rugged men of Morgan County, and his life made an indelible impress upon the progress of the community. He was public-spirited and unselfish, and never hesitated to do what he could for the advancement of the general welfare.

CHAMBERS, JOHN IRWIN, retired, Jacksonville, Ill., was born in Woodford County, Ky., May 16, 1836, and is the fourth child and second son of Colonel George M. and Eleanor E. (Irwin) Chambers. In April, 1837, he was brought by his parents to Jacksonville, where his entire life since that time has been spent. He received his education in the public schools of Jacksonville, and after the completion of his studies he engaged in farming. Subsequently he established himself in the lumber business, in which he succeeded, being identified with that branch of trade for about twenty-three years. Mr. Chambers has always been an unswerving Democrat, and though he has never sought political honors, he served two terms as Alderman from the Second Ward, and for some time as a member of the Board of Education. For a number of years he was Trustee of the State Street Presbyterian Church. In Masonry he affiliates with Jacksonville Lodge, No. 570, A.F. & A.M., and with Hospitaler Commandery, No. 31, K. T. Mr. Chambers was united in marriage September 26, 1870, with Alice E. Askew, daughter of Dr. Joseph Askew, for many years a successful and highly respected practitioner of Morgan County. They have four children, namely: Joseph Askew, who resides in California; Eleanor I., wife of J. Herbert McCune, of Ipava, Ill.; George M., of Milwaukee, Ore.; and John I., Jr., of The Dalles, that State.

CHRISTIANER, GEORGE H. , agriculturist, Morgan County, Ill., living on his farm in Section 34, Meredosia township, was born near Beardstown, Cass County, Ill., October 18, 1858, the son of J. F. and A. M. (Hobrook) Christianer, both natives of Germany. In 1836 the father, who was a farmer, emigrated to America from Hanover, Germany. George H. Christianer was educated in the schools of Cass County, and when of age engaged in farming on his own account. In 1885, he moved to his present farm and now owns an estate of 220 acres located in Sections 34 and 35. He was married October 16, 1884, to Sophia Hofener, daughter of Fred Hofener of Christian County, and a prominent farmer whose home was then near Taylorville. To Mr. Christianer and wife have been born three children-Bertha, Otto and Rosa (who died in infancy). Mr. Christianer and family are members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, at Meredosia, and he is a Republican in politics. His farm is well improved, and has been brought to its present high state of cultivation largely by himself.

CLAMPIT, LOUIS HENRY, M. D. , Assistant Physician and Surgeon at the Illinois Central Hospital for the Insane, Jacksonville, Ill., was born within three miles of that city, August 18, 1860, the son of William H. and Mary Elizabeth Clampit. William Henry Clampit was a farmer and a native of Kentucky and became one of the early settlers of Morgan County. Louis H. Clampit passed his youthful days upon his father's farm. He attended the district schools and the city public schools, and was a student for three years at the Illinois College; then pursued a course in the Jacksonville Business College, and passed one year (1877-78) in Kansas as bookkeeper in the Topeka Foundry and Iron Works. Returning to Jacksonville he began the study of medicine with Dr. H. H. King, and in 1884 finished his professional course at the Hospital Medical College, Louisville, Ky. He commenced practice at Road House, Ill., and continued it in that town for five years, while there having charge of the medical work for the C. & A. Railroad, being their Local Surgeon in 1889. In that year he returned to Jacksonville and continued there in active general practice until 1901, when he was appointed Assistant Surgeon to the Asylum for the Insane, and is still filling that position.

Dr. Clampit was married June 30, 1885, to Lena C. Watson, daughter of James R. and Susan Watson, of Louisville, Ky. Mr. and Mrs. Clampit were the parents of five children, one of whom died in infancy. Those living are: William W., Louis H., Jr., Clarence M. and Margaret E. Dr. Clampit is a member of the M. E. Church and fraternally a Mason, both Chapter and Knights Templar. He was a member of the city Board of Education for five years and City Health Warden for two years.

William H. Clampit, father of our subject, was born in Kentucky September 8, 1825, a son of Moses and Lucy (Rucker) Clampit. Moses Clampit and family moved from Kentucky to Morgan County, Ill., in the first quarter of the last century and engaged in farming. William H. Clampit was married November 16, 1847, to Mary E. Akers, a daughter of Peter and Elizabeth (Read) Akers. Mr. and Mrs. William H. Clampit were the parents of eleven children: six died in infancy, those living being Charles, Moses, Dr. Louis H., Thomas B. and Preston. W. H. Clampit was connected with the M. E. Church and the School board; was a member of the I.O.O.F., and a Republican. At the time of his death, July 25, 1900, he left 400 acres of land as part of his estate. He has been a resident of Jacksonville since 1896, and his widow, who was born in 1832, still lives in the city.

CLARY, JOHN, now retired from active farming, but still one of the most extensive land holders in Morgan County, Ill., was born in County Tipperary, Ireland, August 16, 1831. He is a son of Philip and Mary (Heffernan) Clary, also natives of County Tipperary. Philip clary and his wife were both born in 1802, the husband being a farmer. They came to the United States March 25, 1840, and after a year spent in Ohio, located in LaSalle County, Ill. The father died at Odell, Ill., May 17, 1884, his wife having passed away at Ottawa, Ill., in 1861.

John Clary received his early mental training in the common schools of Ireland and came to the United States with his parents at the age of nine years. He remained with the family one year in Ohio, and moved with them to LaSalle County, where he remained until he was twenty0four years old. In 1855 he migrated to the far West, and spent ten years in mining and prospecting, chiefly in Montana. Returning to Jacksonville, January 16, 1865, he bought a tract of 200 acres and engaged in farming until June 2, 1904, when he retired from active work and moved to Jacksonville, where he purchased valuable city property. He still retains the ownership and management of his original farm, and owns several other properties, aggregating 627 acres of land in Morgan County.

On September 13, 1866, Mr. Clary was united in marriage with Mary Killam, a daughter of Samuel and Margaret (Haxby) Killam, of English descent. Ten children resulted from this union, namely: John W., Assessor and Treasurer of Morgan County; Samuel Philip; Clara; Anna, who died at the age of nineteen years; Gertrude, wife of Edward Stevenson, of Morgan County; Mary; Elizabeth, deceased; Michael; Zella, deceased; and Jeffrey. In politics Mr. Clary is a strong Democrat but has never sought public office. In private life he has always been greatly respected for his upright character and honorable dealings.

CLARY, JOHN WILLIAM , County Treasurer of Morgan County, Jacksonville, Ill., was born on his father's farm west of Jacksonville, June 1, 1867, a son of John and Mary Jane (Killam) Clary. He received his education in the country schools and the Jacksonville Business College, from which he was graduated in the class of 1884. After the completion of his college course he returned to the farm, where he continued to assist his father until he became of age. In 1890 he removed to a farm located about three miles northwest of Jacksonville, which his father had given to him, and there began agricultural operation son his own account. There he has since conducted general farming and stock-raising with good success. On his farm he has raised many finely bred road and draft horses, and much pacing and trotting stock, for which he has received high prices in the market. Of these horses, one has a mark of 2:17¼. He has also been unusually successful as a stock-feeder, much of the stock from his farm bringing the highest prices in the Chicago market. He has attended numerous farmers' institutes during recent years and delivered addresses on scientific stock-feeding, in which department of agriculture life he has become known as a careful student and expert.

Mr. Clary is a Democrat in politics, and has always taken an active interest in the work of his part in the county. For ten years or more he has been a member of the Democratic County Central Committee, and on several occasions has represented his district at State and county conventions. In 1898 he was elected Township Assessor, serving until 1902, when he was nominated for the office of County Assessor and Treasurer, to which he was elected for a term of four years. His administration of the affairs of this important office has been characterized by good business judgment, as he employs the same careful methods in looking after the business interests of the county that have marked the management of his personal affairs.

Fraternally Mr. Clary is identified with the Benevolent Protective Order of Elks, the Court of Honor and the Modern American. He is also Secretary of the Illinois Branch of the American Anti-Horse Thief Association. In religion he is a member of the Catholic Church of Jacksonville. His interest in educational affairs is illustrated by the fact that for twelve years he has served as a School Director in his district. He was married August 27, 1891, to Ellen E. McSherry, a native of Morgan County and a daughter of John and Mary (Allen) McSherry, an old established family of Morgan County. Mr. Clary is a representative of the best class of the younger representative men of Morgan County, and can always be depended upon to perform his share of the work which has for an end the advancement of the best interests of his community.

CLAYTON, JOSEPH, wholesale grocery merchant, of Jacksonville, Morgan County, Ill., was born near Huddersfield, Yorkshire, England, July 24, 1830. He is the eldest son of Matthew and Hannah (Buckley) Clayton, also natives of England, his father being born March 6, 1806. He was a fancy weaver by occupation, a trade which his son, Joseph, learned at an early age. Matthew Clayton came to the United States in 1851, the mother being dead, and Joseph and another son, William, and three sisters, Martha, Emma and Harriet, remained behind for a year, then followed the father to this country, the family settling in North Lee, Mass.

On April 7, 1857, Mr. Clayton, his father and ten other men made a journey together to the Territory of Minnesota, taking up adjoining tracts of land near Waseca. As it was found impossible to earn any money in that region, Mr. Clayton returned to the East, rejoined his wife in Uxbridge, Mass., and resumed his old occupation. From 1863 to 1874 he was designer and superintendent of the Merrimack Woolen Mills, at Lowell, Mass., and in August, 1881, assumed a like position at Joseph Capp and Sons' Woolen Mills, at Jacksonville, which he continued to hold for about five years. He then formed a partnership with his son-in-law, W. A. Jenkinson, in the retail grocery business, and later (in 1895) in a wholesale grocery.

On March 31, 1857, Mr. Clayton was united in marriage in Uxbridge, Mass., with Urania Taft, a daughter of Azra and Susan (Keith) Taft, who died in 1865, leaving two daughters - Susan, wife of Clarence Woodbury, and residing at Waseca, Minn., and Ellen M., wife of W. A. Jenkinson, of Jacksonville. In 1872 Mr. Clayton was married to Harriet A. Chase, of Pelham, N.H. and their union resulted in two children - Annie Urania and Maude Elizabeth.

CLEARY, WILLIAM CHARLES, formerly one of the most enterprising, extensive and successful farmers of Morgan County, Ill., but not passing his declining years in honored retirement, in Jacksonville, Morgan County, was born in County Limerick, Ireland, May 15, 1818. He is a son of William and Margaret Cleary, natives of Ireland. While still under age he came to the United States, landing in New York City, in June 1837. He soon obtained employment with Dr. Brandreth, the noted pill manufacturer, and afterward worked in connection with the masonry contract of the New York State Prison at Sing Sing. In the fall of 1837, together with others, he started for what was then called the "Far West." Through a portion of New York, Mr. Cleary traveled on the first railroad operated in that State, going from Buffalo to Detroit by steamer, and from Detroit to Chicago by schooner, via Lake Huron and Lake Michigan. At Chicago he took a stage for the Illinois River, but on account of the condition of the roads found it necessary to make most of the journey on foot. Arriving at the river, he went by steamboat to Meredosia, Ill., and proceeded thence by land to Jacksonville.

In the spring of 1838 Mr. Cleary began work as a farm hand for William Jordan, one of the pioneer farmers of Morgan County, who was located in what was known as the "Yankee Settlement," near the village of Ebenezer. He lent his wages to Mr. Jordan until the amount in the latter's keeping reached $300, for which he took Mr. Jordan's note. This note he turned over in 1842, together with a horse, saddle and bridle, to James Norris, in consideration for a deed to 53 acres of fine land, situated near concord, Ill., on which Jacob Wilkinson built for him a house, eighteen feet square. In return for the carpenter work, Mr. Cleary broke up Mr. Wilkinson's prairie. He then moved a log barn from the land of a Mr. Ticknor and added it to his remodeled house. Into this dwelling, Julius Pratt moved and boarded Mr. Cleary for the rent. Alfred Williams also boarded with Mr. Pratt in 1847. About this time, Mr. Cleary donated sufficient ground on which to build the first Baptist Church. Shortly afterward, he secured a contract for the rebuilding of a section of the Sangamon & Morgan Railroad, now a part of the Wabash system. Elizur Wolcott was then in charge of the civil engineering crew engaged in surveying and establishing grades for this work, and that gentleman became an intimate friend of Mr. Cleary. Although this contract was what Mr. Cleary now calls a small one, it yielded him a sufficient amount of money, properly invested, to secure him against all future want. Soon after the completion of this road, Mr. Cleary made a trip to Springfield, and such was the condition of the roadbed, and so numerous were the obstacles to successful operation, that the return trip consumed a week. In the course of time Mr. Cleary bought 100 acres of land adjoining his first purchase, the combined tracts making, after improvement, one of the most valuable farms, of its size, in Morgan County. Mr. Cleary devoted his attention to this property until 1859, and then sold it to a Mr. Thorndyke, buying a farm about six miles and a half northeast of Jacksonville, where he engaged extensively in stock raising and cattle feeding. On this farm he resided until his retirement from active work, and removal to Jacksonville, in 1891. He still owns the farm, which now consists of 577 acres of productive land, and also 90 acres of equally fine land, four miles southeast of Jacksonville.

On January 13, 1853, Mr. Cleary was untied in marriage with Mary Alice Welch, of Alton, Ill., who died October 29, 1876. From this union resulted the following children, namely: Franklin Pierce, and Morrison, deceased; Mrs. Margaret McMillan Norris, of Paoli, Kans.; Mary, deceased; William M., who lives on the homestead east of Jacksonville; Charlotte, wife of Edward Epler, of Jacksonville; Elizabeth, who also lives at home; and Kate, deceased.

Politically Mr. Cleary is a supporter of the Democratic party. He is not a member of any religious sect, but believes in the tenets of the Episcopal Church and attends its services. During his long and honorable life in Morgan County, he has witnessed its development from a wilderness into one of the most prosperous and productive sections of the State. In this extended period he has made the intimate acquaintance of men of great prominence, among others, of the great and revered Lincoln. On one occasion Mr. Lincoln acted as Mr. Cleary's attorney, in a case in which the latter had brought suit against the Sangamon & Morgan Railroad Company. The case was tried in Springfield, Ill., and Mr. Cleary, who was deeply imbued in the equity of his claim, insisted on making a personal plea to the court. This he proceeded to do, with his counsel's consent; and Mr. Lincoln, in relating the incident in later years, said that he sat back in his chair and almost died of laughter, while his client was endeavoring to impress the judge with the merits of his side of the litigation. Mr. Cleary was also well acquainted with Stephen A. Douglas, and on the evening following his (Mr. Cleary's) wedding, in 1853, took his bride in Springfield, and attended the ball given by Douglas, whose election to the United States Senate had just occurred. Personally, Mr. Cleary has always commanded the respect of all classes, and been regarded as a man of absolute rectitude of character and genuine worth. Although he was always averse to ostentation in his acts of benevolence, he has been the source of many charitable benefactions. Besides rearing and educating a large family of his own, he has brought up six other children, on each of whom he has bestowed the advantages of an excellent education. One of these, William Cleary, his nephew, during the Civil War was a Lieutenant in a Union regiment from Tennessee, and afterward served as a cadet in the United States Military Academy at West Point, dying before the completion of his course.

Around the venerable head of William C. Cleary constantly hover the affection and esteem of hosts of his fellow citizens, whose benedictions must assuredly afford him grateful solace in his sunset years, as he faces, with serene composure, the infinite beyond.

CLEARY, WILLIAM M., farmer, residing on Section 8, Town 15 North, Range 9 West, Morgan County, Ill., was born where he now lives, on his father's homestead, December 25, 1859, the son of W. C. and Mary (Walsh) Cleary, both natives of Ireland, sketches of whose lives appear in another part of this volume. Mr. Cleary was reared on the farm, meanwhile attending the local schools, and spent one year in Illinois College at Jacksonville, after which he returned to the farm and worked by the month for his father, cultivating the land and feeding cattle. Since the age of twenty-two he has transacted business on his own account, and now rents 250 acres of his father's land residing in the home of his youth, his father being retired and living in Jacksonville.

Mr. Cleary was married February 1, 1888, to Lillian Crum, daughter of William W. and Ann (Clark) Crum, and they have three children: Annie Norlane, William Crum and Lillian. Fraternally Mr. Cleary is a member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Modern Woodmen of America.

COATES, Amos, a much respected resident of Jacksonville, Morgan County, Ill., who was formerly engaged in the pursuits of blacksmithing and farming, but is now enjoying the quietude of a comfortable and honorable retirement, was born in Yorkshire, England, December 25, 1826. He is the son of Jonathan and Hannah Coates, also natives of England.

Amos Coates came alone to the United States about 1850, and proceeded directly to Morgan County. H had learned the trade of a blacksmith in his native land, and for ten years followed that occupation at Lynnville, Morgan County. In 1859 or 1860, he bought a farm west of the town, and afterward rented other land, which he cultivated until his removal to Jacksonville, where he has lived nearly half a century. He continued at his trade in Jacksonville until about 1875, when he relinquished active efforts. He still owns a farm of 120 acres, and is the owner of his residence in the city.

In 1874, Mr. Coates was married in Jacksonville to Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson, who was born in Ireland. In political affairs he acts with the Republican party, but has never aspired to public office. His religious connections are with the State Street Methodist Episcopal Church, of Jacksonville. Mr. Coates is known in Jacksonville as a man of strict probity, and his long connection with this community has won for him wide respect and good will.

COBB, William Henry, the efficient foreman of the C.P. & St. L. R.R. blacksmith department, at Jacksonville, Morgan County, Ill., was born at Scarborough, England, July 8, 1857. He is a son of Hugh and Katherine (McPhail) Cobb, natives respectively of England and Scotland. His father was born in Scarborough, July 8, 1828, and his mother in Edinburgh, in 1829. They were married in 1852 and came to the United States in 1869, locating at Winchester, Ill., where for five years Hugh Cobb followed the occupation of a carpenter and cabinet maker. He then moved to Jacksonville, where he spent the remainder of his life, dying August 18, 1899. His wife had passed away November 15, 1892.

Wm. H. Cobb received his early mental training in the grammar schools of his native country and in 1870 followed his father to the United States, joining the latter at Winchester. While there he worked on a farm for four years, and then moved with his father to Jacksonville. There he served a four years' apprenticeship as a blacksmith, with John W. Hall, and subsequently worked two years for George Jamieson. When the old Jacksonville Car Company was organized, he secured employment with that concern as blacksmith, and continued thus during the company's existence. He afterward obtained a similar position in the shops of the Jacksonville Southeastern Railroad Company. When that company was merged into the C.P. & St. L. R.R. Company, and the latter built its new shops, he was employed in similar work there. In 1894, on account of his careful and efficient service, he was promoted to be foreman of the blacksmith department of the shops. Altogether, during its various changes, Mr. Cobb has been connected with this road for a period of twenty-four years. He is a member of the Railroad Master Blacksmiths' Association of the United States and Canada, and of the C.P. & St. L. Mutual Benefit Association.

On December 7, 1880, Mr. Cobb was united in marriage, at Jacksonville, with Margaret Brown, a daughter of Burton and Margaret (Hilligas) Brown, who were among the earliest settlers of Morgan County. Her father served in the Civil War as Captain of Company K, Fifty-ninth Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry. Her great-grandfather, Elijah Smith, was a soldier of the Revolutionary War, and is its only veteran buried in Jacksonville. Three children resulted from this union, namely: Clara K., born in 1883; Harry Edward, born in 1885; and Florence Margaret, born in 1889.

In politics Mr. Cobb is an active and influential Republican, and has ever manifested a lively interest in municipal affairs. In 1899 he was chosen Alderman from The Third Ward of Jacksonville, and in 1901 was elected City Treasurer. He was also elected Alderman in 1903 and 1905; was a delegate to the "deadlock" Gubernatorial Convention at Springfield, Ill., in 1904, and a member of the first Board of Commissioners of the Jacksonville Cemetery. At the time of the great railroad strike at St. Louis, he was connected with the old Jacksonville Light Guards, which served in that disturbance.

Religiously, Mr. Cobb was identified with the established Church of England, but during the period of his residence in Jacksonville attended the Christian Church with his family, who are all members of that denomination.

Fraternally, Mr. Cobb is a member of Harmony Lodge, No. 3, A.F. & A.M.; of Illini Lodge, No. 4, I.O.O.F.; Rebekah Lodge, No. 13; Rena Tent, No. 12, K.O.T.M., and Jacksonville Lodge, No. 682, B.P.O. Elks.

CONOVER, Peter, Major. One of the most conspicuous citizens of Morgan County at the time of its establishment, was Peter Conover. The date of his coming to the county cannot now be definitely ascertained, but he must have been here as early as 1823; for in February, 1823, the Legislature of Illinois passed an act authorizing the people to vote at the next election for and against calling a convention to adopt a new constitution, the object being to provide for the institution of slavery in Illinois. That action provoked intense excitement and agitation, resulting in the formation of the memorable "Morganian Society," the object of which was to defeat the establishment of slavery in the State. A list of 130 members of the society has been preserved, and Mr. Conover's name is the third in that illustrious galaxy or Morgan County pioneers. The election was held in August, 1824, and the infamous scheme failed.

At the ensuing election for county officers, Mr. Conover was chosen as one of the County Commissioners, with Daniel Lieb and Samuel Bristow as his colleagues. He was an active member of the Baptist Church, and his house in Jersey Prairie, was for a time the place of religious services.

He was a native of New Jersey, removed to the neighborhood of Lexington, Ky., and from there to Illinois. He was a man of more than ordinary intelligence, and was the first President of the Morgan County Bible Society. The influence of his life and work remains in the community where he lived.

COX, Eli - Rev. William Clark, whose father, Thomas Clark, located in what was then Morgan County, about five miles west of Virginia, when the son, William was ten years old, gives the following account of the first white settler within the present bounds of Cass County:

"The earliest white settler of Cass County, of whom we find any knowledge, was Mr. Eli Cox. He settled in the eastern part of what is now Cass County, in the year 1816. He staked out a claim, and after remaining on it for a time, left it; returned in 1819; built a cabin, and commenced permanent improvements, and lived there until his death, which occurred in 1860 or 1861. He was through life very eccentric in some particulars."

I new Mr. Clark well for more than a half century. His life was spent in the ministry of the Methodist Church. He was a well-informed and able preacher, and had the best opportunities for knowing Mr. Cox and facts concerning his life and character.

CRABTREE, John Crittenden, was born near Louisville, Ky., March 13, 1825. In 1829 his widowed mother brought him to Scott County, Ill., where he resided on a farm near Winchester until 1855, when he moved to a farm three and a half miles northeast of Franklin. There he died March 22, 1900. The deceased was one of the pioneer stock-shippers of Illinois and at one time possessed great wealth. He was a Mason and an Odd Fellow, and a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Franklin for many years.

John C. Crabtree was married December 25, 1843, to Martha A. Six, and their nine children were as follows: James W., Dillis, Isaac, John, Alice, Robert, Wilburn, Maude and Oliver Newton. Isaac resides at Murrayville, Ill.; John at Pittsburg, Kans.; Oliver Newton at Paris, Mo. Five are deceased. The mother survived her husband more than one year, dying September 11, 1901, near Murrayville.

CRABTREE, Edgar Erman, banker, member of the firm of F. G. Farrell & Company, Jacksonville, Ill., was born near Franklin, Morgan County, Ill., August 4, 1869, and is a son of James Washington and Mary Elizabeth (Woods) Crabtree. (A sketch of James W. Crabtree appears elsewhere in this work.) Edgar E. received his education in the public schools of Jacksonville. As a youth and a clerk at $3 per week, he entered the employ of William Newman & Company, jobbers in notions and furnishing goods. His business ability was readily recognized even then, and his employers showed their appreciation of his talent and industry by promoting him rapidly through the various grades of employment to the positions of buyer and credit man. For some time he traveled for the concern throughout the Middle West. He with others then organized the Columbia Manufacturing Company, with which he remained for four years, when he disposed of his interest therein and became a department manager for the Ferguson-McKinney Drygoods Company, of St. Louis, in which he was a minor stock-holder. On February 1, 1901, he sold his stock and resigned his position, in order that he might return to Jacksonville to engage in the banking business, and was immediately admitted as a partner into the banking firm of F. G. Farrell & Company, with a one-third interest in the concern. Upon the death of the elder Farrell, with Felix E. Farrell he purchased the interest of the remaining heirs of F. G. Farrell, and since that time the two have been equal partners in the operation of the bank. Under their management the business of the institution has greatly increased, and there are men of discriminating intelligence in Jacksonville who have made the prediction that it is but a question of a few years when their enterprise will rank with the strongest financial institutions of the Middle West, outside of the larger cities.

Mr. Crabtree is Secretary of the Board of Trustees of the State Street Presbyterian Church, in which he is an earnest worker. In Masonry he affiliates with Jacksonville Lodge, No. 570, A. F. & A. M., of which he is Past Master; Jacksonville Chapter, No. 3, R. A. M.; Jacksonville Council, No. 5, R. & S. M.; Red Cross Conclave, No. 4, Saint John Knights of Constantine; Hospitaler Commandery, No. 31, K. T.; and of Mohammed Temple, N. M. S., and the Consistory of Peoria. He is also a member of the Illini Lodge, No. 4, I. O. O. F.; Jacksonville Lodge, No. 152, K. P., of which he is Past Chancellor Commander; and of Ilderim Temple, No. 62, D. O. K. K., of which he is Acting Royal Vizier. He was united in marriage August 20, 1896, with Anna, daughter of the late F. G. Farrell.

Mr. Crabtree is a thoroughly representative man of the younger generation of Illinois citizens: Beginning life in a lowly position as a clerk at $3 per week, he has attained his present position of recognized success in the business world solely through individual industry, energy and perseverance. His strong personality, the foundation of which is inherited from a long line of rugged and honorable ancestry, has been developed through contact with some of the most sagacious business men of the Mississippi Valley, with whom he is now classed.

CRABTREE, James Washington, was born October 7, 1844, near Winchester, Scott County, Ill., and came to Morgan County with his parents in 1855. He engaged in farming and extensive stock operations with his father until 1876, when he moved to Jacksonville and engaged in general merchandising, as a member of the firm of Woods, Simmons, Cassell & Co. Subsequently he was engaged in the sale of farm implements. In August, 1901, he removed to Lawton, Okla., where he still resides.

In May, 1864, Mr. Crabtree enlisted in Company C, One Hundred and Forty-fifth Regiment, Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and served until October of that year, when he was mustered out. His service was performed principally in the vicinity of Rolla and Springfield, Mo., under Gen. Rosecrans, but toward the close of his term of enlistment his regiment was on duty at Alton, Ill., guarding Confederate prisoners. He is a Mason and a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. To Mr. Crabtree and his wife four children were born: Edgar E.; Maurice Leroy, of Springfield, Mo.; Vinton Woods (deceased), and Charles W., of Oklahoma.

CROUCH, E. L., M.D., Assistant Physician and Surgeon, Illinois Central Hospital for the Insane, Jacksonville, Ill., was born in Jefferson County, Ill., July 22, 1869, the son of W. L. and Rebecca (Harris) Crouch, the former a native of Jefferson County, Ill., and the latter of Posey County, Ind. The mother came to Illinois with her parents in childhood. Dr. Crouch's paternal grandfather, Jesse L. Crouch, moved to Jefferson County, Ill., when a young man, and later married Ruth Ward, whose father was one of the earliest settlers of that part of the State. W. L. Crouch, father of E. L., now lives retired from active farming labors. In 1862 he enlisted in Company K, Thirteenth Illinois Volunteer Cavalry, was mustered into service at Camp Butler, near Springfield, and in 1865 was mustered out at Quincy, Ill. To him and his wife were born four children, all excepting Dr. Crouch, who is the oldest son, residing in Mt. Vernon, Ill.

Dr. E. L. Crouch, as a boy, was reared on his father's farm, and, after attending the district school, began the study of medicine in the Missouri Medical College (now Washington University), St. Louis, and graduated therefrom in 1891. During the same year he engaged in general practice in Mt. Vernon, Ill., continuing therein until 1897. In May of the latter year he was appointed to the position of Second Assistant Physician on the East Side at the Jacksonville Hospital for the Insane, later (1901) became Physician for the State Penitentiary at Chester, Ill., and in June, 1902, returned to Jacksonville and assumed his present position.

Dr. Crouch was married June 23, 1893, to Mary Hawkins, daughter of Joel Hawkins, of Jefferson County, Ill., who was one of the early settlers of that part of the State. He and his wife have one son, Joel Elmer, born December 3, 1899. In 1895 and 1896 Dr. Crouch pursued special post-graduate courses, and is a member of several medical societies, such as the State Medical Association, Morgan County Medical Society, Southern Illinois Association and the Western District Medical Association of Jacksonville. He is a member of the Baptist Church and fraternally, a Mason.

CRUM, John W., one of the early settlers of Morgan County, and, for a long period, one of its most successful and influential citizens, was born in Clark County, Ind., December 25, 1825. He is son of Matthias and Margaret (Spangler) Crum, natives, respectively, of Virginia and Kentucky. When a young man, Matthias Crum located at Louisville, Ky., where he was engaged in teaching school. There he was united in marriage with Margaret Spangler, who was born in Louisville, when the city was only a frontier military post. David Spangler, her father, lost his life at the hands of hostile Indians, being the owner of 1,000 acres of land on the site of Louisville. Sometime after his marriage, he moved to the opposite side of the Ohio River, in Clark County, Ind., and bought 100 acres of land. He was much inclined to outdoor sports, and was an ardent hunter. He cleared his 100 acre tract of timber and there carried on farming until 1831, when he moved to Morgan County, Ill., and purchased from William Babb a claim to 160 acres of Government land at $1.25 per acre. This farm is now owned and occupied by his son, John W. On it then stood a round log cabin, which the father used as a dwelling. He bought also 240 acres, besides the Babb claim, and died on this farm in 1841. Matthias Crum was a consistent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, with which his wife, who died in 1872, was also identified. Their children were as follows: William, Christian, Polly, James, David, Gordon, Joseph, Elizabeth, Rebecca, Isaac, Samuel H., A. A., John W., and twins, who died unnamed. William was about eighty years old; Christian died at about the same age in Cass County, Ill., where James also died, aged ninety-three years; Polly, who was the wife of Leander Cobb, passed away when seventy years old; David died in Missouri; Joseph died when about eighty years old, in Paxton, Ill.; Elizabeth, wife of Lewis O'Neil, died at the age of seventy-two years; Rebecca was three years old when she died; Isaac lives at Des Moines, Ia.; Samuel, who went to California in 1849, returned to Morgan County, and subsequently made another trip to California, where he was occupied in prospecting and mining and was known as an inveterate hunter.

John W. Crum was in his sixth year when he came to Morgan County, and attended a subscription school, at first taught by Mary A. Rucker in a log school house. He was fifteen years old when his father died, and it was the latter's ante-mortem request that as soon as legally possible, he and his brother, A. A., should purchase the interests of the other heirs to the homestead. The paternal desire was fulfilled in time, and the brothers jointly conducted the farm, subsequently making an equitable division of the property, which consisted of more than 1,000 acres of land, devoted to general farming and stock raising. Mr. Crum now owns about 580 acres of land, on which he has made all the convenient and attractive improvements.

Mr. Crum has been thrice married. His first wife was Mary A. Coons, to whom he was wedded February 14, 1850. Their union resulted in the following children: Samuel H., an agriculturist living in the vicinity of his father's farm; Matthias M., who lives in the same neighborhood; William H.; James Alvin, who resides in St. Louis; Charles W., of Jacksonville; and one who died in infancy. The mother of this family died in 1877. In 1879 Mr. Crum was married to Mrs. Frances D. Eades, widow of Horatio Eades, and a daughter of William Orear. She died in 1889, and, on November 22, 1905, Mr. Crum was united in marriage with Mrs. Cella Cruse, widow of Thomas Cruse. The present Mrs. Crum is a daughter of Henry Humphrey, familiarly known as "Father Humphrey" about Jacksonville, where he located prior to the Civil War. He had charge of the conservatory of the Asylum for the Insane in Jacksonville.

In politics, Mr. Crum is a firm Republican, and has creditably filled various local offices. Religiously, Mr. Crum is connected with the Baptist denomination; while his wife is a member of the M. E. church. Both are active in religious work, and Mr. Crum is very liberal in his contributions toward the propagation of Christian doctrine and the promotion of charitable enterprises. He is, in all respects, a representative of the best element in American agriculture, and a public spirited and exemplary citizen.

CRUM, Albert, one of the foremost farmers of Morgan County, Ill., and one of its most worthy citizens, was born August 30, 1858, on his father's homestead near Literberry, in the county named. He is a son of Abram A. Crum, who was among the pioneer settlers of the county, and one of its most prominent and wealthy men. Abram A. Crum was born in Clark County, Ind., September 22, 1823. The paternal grandfather, Matthias Crum, was born and reared in Virginia, and when a young man taught school in Louisville, Ky. He was married to Margaret Spangler, who was born in Louisville when that city was merely a military post, her father, David Spangler, being killed there by Indians. He was the owner of 1,000 acres of land where the city now stands. After his marriage Matthias Crum moved across the Ohio River to Clark County, Ind., and settled on a farm. He was fond of outdoor sports and was a noted hunter. In September, 1831, he brought his family by team to Morgan County, where he purchased 160 acres of land at $1.25 per acre. He bought the tract of William Babb, who entered it as government land, and on this farm, which is now owned and occupied by his son, John W. Crum, Matthias Crum passed away in 1841. His widow died in 1852. On the place, at the time of the grandfather's purchase, stood a small, round lob cabin. Besides the Babb claim, he purchased an additional 240 acres. Matthias Crum and his wife were members of the Methodist Church. They were the parents of the following children: William, who died when about eighty years old, in Clark County, Ind.; Christian, who died in Cass County, Ill., at about the same age; Polly, who married Leander Cobb, and died at the age of seventy years; James, who died when ninety-three years old in Cass County; David, who died in Missouri; Joseph, who died when about eighty years of age, at Paxton, Ill.; Elizabeth, who was the wife of Lewis O'Neil and died at the age of seventy-two years; Rebecca who died when three years old; Isaac, who lives in Des Moines, Ia.; Samuel, who went to California in 1849; Abram A.; John W. a review of whose life appears elsewhere in this volume; and twins, who died unnamed. Samuel returned from California to Morgan County, but again located in that State to engage in prospecting and mining. He was noted as a successful hunter.

CRUM, Abram A. was eight years old when he came to Morgan County. He attended the primitive subscription schools of that period conducted in log school houses, his first teacher being Mary A. Rucker. When he was in his eighteenth year his father died, and he and his brother, John W., operated the farm and remained with their mother. She was a midwife, and it was customary for her to be absent from home for weeks at a time. In accordance with the request of their father before his death, Abram A. and John W. bought the interests of the other heirs of the paternal estate, conducting the farm together until they divided the property in 1863. They were engaged in stock-raising on quite an extensive scale. Abram A. Crum was a very successful man. He was one of the first depositors in the old Ayers Bank - if not the very first. On the event of the marriage of his only daughter, he made her a present of land worth about $30,000. She became the wife of H. B. Baxter, then residing in the vicinity of Literberry, and a record of whose life may be found in another portion of this volume. Mr. Crum was equally generous with his only son, Albert, when the latter started in life for himself. Abram A. Crum was one of the most extensive landholders in Morgan County. On January 13, 1853, he was married to Sarah Buchanan, who was born January 18, 1834. Three children resulted from this union, namely: An infant, who died unnamed; Lydia Ellen, wife of H. B. Baxter; and Albert. In politics, their father was a strong and influential Republican.

Albert Crum was born and reared on the homestead farm. In boyhood he attended the common schools and afterward pursued a course at the Jacksonville Business College. On completing his commercial studies he engaged in business with his father. In 1883, he moved to this present farm, on which he has made all the improvements. He has developed it into one of the finest farms in Morgan County, owning in all 840 acres of as productive land as can be found in the State. He is engaged in raising standard bred horses on what is widely known as the "Wayside Farm", in partnership with his cousin, William H. Crum, and James W. Crum. They exhibited some of their horses at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, at St. Louis, in 1904, and at the State Fair, receiving eleven prizes amounting to $1,000, which sum fell much short of the expenses of their exhibit. Mr. Crum is also a breeder and raiser of thoroughbred Poland-China hogs and other stock, and conducts general farming operations. He is also one of the stockholders and Directors in Ayers' Bank of Jacksonville. His home is located two miles east of Literberry.

On December 6, 1882, Mr. Crum was united in marriage with Sally B. Murray, who was born in the vicinity of Literberry. Mention of the Murray family is made in connection with the sketch of H. R. Johnson, of Jacksonville, who, after the death of Mrs. Crum's father, married his widow.

In politics Mr. Crum is an earnest Republican. He and his wife are active members of the Christian Church. Both are very liberal in their contributions to church work and benevolent and charitable institutions. The impulse and purpose of their lives manifestly tend toward the accomplishment of all possible good with the ample means with which fortune has favored them. Finally Mr. Crum is one of the most extensive and successful farmers of Morgan County, his business qualities are of a superior order, and as a man, his life has been dominated by strict rectitude and marked by broad beneficence.

CRUM, William H., a well known resident of the vicinity of Literberry, Morgan County, Ill., who is successfully engaged in the breeding of high grade horses, was born on his father's farm near the place March 15, 1855. He is a son of John W. Crum, a record of whose life appears elsewhere in this volume. When a boy William H. Crum attended the district schools in his neighborhood, and afterward pursued a three years' course of study in the Illinois Wesleyan University. Subsequently he entered Browns's Business College, where, at the age of twenty years, he acquired a thorough mercantile training. Two years later he assumed charge of his father's extensive farm, and was engaged in stock raising and the breeding of Percheron and standard road horses until 1897, when he moved to his present farm.

In 1901, Mr. Crum formed a partnership with his cousin, Albert Crum, in the same line of business, under the firm name of Crum & Crum. At the St. Louis Exposition in 1904, they were awarded eleven prizes on their exhibits, aggregating about $1,000. Mr. Crum has also been a breeder of fine Berkshire hogs for about twenty years. In this enterprise, J. W. Liter and J. L. Campbell are associated with him, and the concern is known as the Morgan County Berkshire Association. Its transactions are of considerable magnitude, and it is widely and favorably known for the quality of its product.

On October 22, 1895, Mr. Crum was united in marriage with Martha Gilpin, and their union has resulted in two children - Wilma, aged seven years, and Alta, two months. Politically, Mr. Crum is a supporter of the Republican party, and has creditably filled several township offices. He is a man of sound judgment and excellent business qualifications, and commands general confidence by reason of these qualities and the absolute integrity of his character.

1906 index
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